The characters/ideograms mean "enter dojo, perform steps in order with timing, exit the dojo." The first character means "body; substance; object; reality; syle; form; appearance," the second character means, "distribute; deliver; spouse; exile; rationing."
Taihai refers to a formality for kyudo. It is a ritual patterns process of entering the dojo or the training place where kyudo is performed then the practitioner performs specific steps in a specific order with specific timing involved all the way to the release of the arrow then to the point that reverses the ritual to the actual exiting the dojo or training place.
You could look at this beyond its source of kyudo and take it to mean the formalities of the dojo in all systems. It depends on how regimented or how they adhere to the concept of shikata, i.e. the regimented form one uses for specific disciplines like karate.
It could mean a pattern and rhythm used time and again to enter the dojo training floor, to sit mokuso, to show respect and reverence to the shoman, sensei, dai-sempai and to each other, then finally to the training session with a reverse at the end of said training session. Some systems refer to the less rigid form as reishiki where rigidity or adherence to a set form, pattern and rhythm is allowed.
In Kyudo it remains a set pattern of forms that have a rhythm and timing that remains the same regardless of the person and the dojo where it is practiced. It is a part of the system itself that speaks to the way of archery or Kyu-DO (emphasis on the Do [doah] or "the way").
Tai-ki-ken (also Karada Ki Ken) [体気拳]
The characters/ideograms mean, "body; mind/spirit; fist." The first character means, "body; substance; object; reality," the second character means, "spirit; mind; air; atmosphere; mood," the third character means, "fist."
A term or phrase used in martial systems to denote the practice of an empty handed system that works toward achieving a mind-body-spirit unity with emphasis on self-defense as an aside to the more philosophical and spiritual achievement.
The characters/ideograms mean "boredom; tedium." The first character means, "retreat; withdraw; retire; resign; repel; expel; reject," the second character means, "yield; bend; flinch; submit."
In the fight, submission is not an option. In training and practice, boredom or taikutsu is not an option. It is easy to give yourself that excuse and stop training and practicing.
This is becoming a greater and greater detriment to things like protective training, self-defense and martial arts. Why? Because of the new instant gratification model our society has fallen into simply because of modern technology. We live in a system that changes the technology at ever opportunity and all to fill a need for gratification and that means never being bored with what you are doing or are participating in - like martial arts that are in essence repetitive practices that lead to possible boredom. This is especially true when the teacher, instructor, sensei has not been fully vetted into the teaching/sensei arena.
Fight your taikutsu, boredom, and you will find benefits that will far out benefit simply being excited about the next thing you can do, often without ever mastering or becoming proficient in what you just finished. Look at taikutsu as a character building process.
Tai Sabaki [体捌き]
It means in martial circles, "whole body movement." It is body management in the throws of fighting, combat or conflict when utilizing martial technique. It is more a means to move the body off line or out of the line of attack while countering with martial technique. It moves you, the attacked, into a more advantageous position to counter while avoiding the attackers technique. Tai sabaki is related to ashi sabaki (footwork) and te sabaki (handwork).
The first character means, "body; substance; object; reality; counter for images," while the second means, "handle; deal with; dispose of, etc."
The characters/ideograms mean "experience; comprehension; realization; knack; mastery." The first character means, "body; substance; object; reality," the second character means, "gain; get; find; earn; acquire; can; may; able to; profit; advantage; benefit."
Experience, that which cannot be taught. Experience is something that is never taught to anyone, what can be taught is the way to that experience. That something implicit in ourselves and is achieved only through experience. Experience cannot be packaged, presented and sold as if it were some commodity.
Martial arts or systems are those things taught that lead toward experience. If one does not endeavor to reach toward the starts outside the dojo then they cannot attain experience. Experiences within the dojo are not experiences out on the streets of the world. You have to live life and achieve experience in life's things directly, not by osmosis.
Much like military, one can be trained how to gain experience. One can receive knowledge from other experienced souls but experience in combat is only achieved by the individual who steps across the line into harm's way.
The Greeks knew of this, the Roman's knew of this, and the Chinese Generals of ancient times knew of this - there is no other way. Training is the yin side, experience is the yang side - two sides to complete the coin that has value.
One cannot teach you to defend yourself, one can only teach you the way to defend yourself.
The characters/ideograms mean "experience." The first character means, "sutra; longitude; pass thru; expire; warp," the second character means, "verification; effect; testing."
The characters/ideograms mean "personal experience." The first character means, "body; substance; object; reality," the second character means, "verification; effect; testing."
Taiwa [対話] - Giman [欺瞞] - Chui sanman [注意散漫] - Sonsho [損傷]
The characters/ideograms mean "dialogue; discussion; conversation; interaction." The first character means, "vis-a-vis; opposite; even; equal; versus; anti-; compare," the second character means, "tale; talk."
The characters/ideograms mean "deception; deceit." The first character means, "deceit; cheat; delude," the second character means, "deception."
Chui sanman [注意散漫]
The characters/ideograms mean "distraction; inattention; mind-wandering." The first character means, "pour; irrigate; shed (tears); flow into; concentrate on; notes; comment; annotate," the second character means, "idea; mind; heart; taste; thought; desire; care; liking," the third character means, "scatter; disperse; spend; squander," the fourth character means, "cartoon; involuntarily; in spite of oneself; corrupt."
The characters/ideograms mean "damage; injury." The first character means, "damage; loss; disadvantage; hurt; injure," the second character means, "wound; hurt; injure; impair; pain; injury; cut; gash; scar; weak point."
The four "D's" as described in the book by Geoff Thompson, "Dead or Alive: The Definitive Self-Protection Handbook," uses dialogue, deception, distraction and destruction while I like the terms above meaning my particular four "D's," i.e. dialogue, deceit, distraction and damage. In another term/phrase I speak to self-protection, a form of avoidance, where you make yourself a hard target, i.e. help an attacker to decide he needs to find an easier target for his business. These terms describe a form of hardening of self against conflict or rather violent attacks.
Taiwa, or dialogue is merely a form of innocent looking communications with the sole purpose to distract your mind away from your spidey sense. Couple with deceit or giman, i.e. where the person presents a face and body that says I am harmless. It also works as a distraction or chui sanman from your environment where you focus narrowly on that individual while he either violently attacks you or allows a moment of two so his associates can get behind you, etc. This chui sanman or distraction also moves you mind away from the early warning system you have but also gets the mind on the dialogue and deceit so that any possible counter action you could use is momentarily on hold - then they attack and do damage or sonsho.
Look at it from another perspective, i.e. in regards to the OODA loop. Dialogue, deceit and distraction all work against your loop keeping you in another loop, i.e. the observe and orient loop. If they use this to keep you from the decision and act part of the process you will be frozen and vulnerable - a soft target.
The characters/ideograms mean "quantity; number; amount." The first character means, "many; frequent; much," and the second character means, widow; minority; few."
The quantity is the amount of techniques and combinations one must know to achieve proficiency while eliminating the superfluous ones. Even Musashi Miyamoto spoke to the quantity of techniques as to keeping them limited and manageable. It was his sixteenth precept of the document he wrote titled, "Dokkodo."
In a quote from the below bibliography, "Do not seek especially either to collect or to practice arms beyond what is useful." One needs effective techniques they must "know" thoroughly, deeply and to its greatest breadth and to have those which are useful in combat. It also speaks to making them if what is available is not adequate. This speaks to the ability to morph what you know into a unique form that works.
It speaks to having quality vs. quantity where the quality can achieve the many from the few. Musashi Miyamoto also speaks to this aspect of budo. A limited and of high quality can become almost unlimited in applications, this is the gaol or strategy of martial systems.
Takaku rishoku-ritsu [高く離職率]
The characters/ideograms mean "high turnover." The first character means, "high; tall; expensive," the second character means, "detach; seperation; disjoin; digress," the third character means, "post; employment; work," the fourth character means, "rate; proportion; %; coefficient; factor; ratio."
In most martial systems sensei have to deal with a very high turnover rate. This has become the norm in the west and I suspect it is the same in the east as well. It varies as to why this occurs but it does exist and what I am proposing in this post is "high turnover" is beneficial to the marital arts and systems.
What, beneficial, you have got to be kidding, right? Yes, I propose that such turnover is a benefit and since it is here to stay why not take a look at those benefits and then embrace them as a natural part of training, practice and application.
First, let this be a natural model that allows sensei and senpai to return to the basics and fundamentals of the system they practice. After all these basics/fundamentals are the very essence of the systems we practice. Both as an introduction to the newest participants of this form of budo and also a segway into the fundamentals that newbies often perceive as the same as basics until introduced to how the fundamentals work.
Sensei and senpai, both, are naturally sent back to the basics and fundamentals of the system with each new arrival into the dojo. It is important that both not pass this effort down to the lowest and most inexperienced kohai but rather take the time and effort to provide their guidance in this introduction. It also sets a mind-set with newbies that sensei and senpai really care about them and their efforts.
Look at it this way as well, would you want the fledgling cement pouring guy to create, set and pour your cement foundation to your home or would it be best to have those experienced journeymen to at least mentor and monitor the fledgling worker to set up and pour the foundation of your home - your dojo, your home, right?
Why would you then want your fledgling kohai to set the foundation for newbies to the dojo with what will be the foundation on which you will build a karate-ka?
As you and your senpai continue to teach these basics and fundamentals to the newbies you are re-introducing yourself to those basics but most important to the fundamentals of those basic techniques where you open your mind to discover all the various paths that the lead off and take you on that journey we call martial arts.
As you teach the new guys you will find new things, ideas and ways of implementation and application that always transfer to the kata and to kumite. Is not kata and kumite, if a classically driven traditional practice of karate-goshin-do, derived from what you learn, practice and apply as to basic waza in the model of a fundamental way?
The characters/ideograms mean "bamboo bundle; bamboo shield used for defending against projectiles in battle." The first character means, "bamboo," the second character means, "bundle; sheaf; ream; tie in bundles; govern; manage; control."
A bamboo bundle used for conditioning the hands in karate of Okinawa. Bamboo are bundled together and stood in a vertical position so the karate-ka can strike the bundle using the spear hand technique to toughen up the ends of the fingers as well as strengthen the fingers, hands and forearms. Other exercises are used to develop the grip and provide for accuracy.
Except in the most traditional/classical systems this device is seldom used in modern karate circles. Goju-ryu and Uechi-ryu are two harder systems of karate from Okinawa that use this device.
The characters/ideograms mean "bamboo grove." The first character means, "bamboo," the second character means, "thicket; bush; underbrush; grove."
Bamboo is a symbol of the martial arts. It seems frail, yet in a storm even the toughest oak may be torn from its roots while the bamboo survives by yielding.
Bamboo bend before a build up of snow weighing it down toward the ground, but springs back again when a tremor of wind knocks the snow off its trunk, branches, and leaves, allow the bamboo to spring back to its original form. Firm and solid on the outside, yet empty within, not clinging to a fixed position yet maintaining a constancy of form through all external changes, the bamboo symbolizes a spiritual and martial arts Sensei of the highest order.
Takeyabu is a bamboo grove where all bamboo are symbolized by the grove as a dojo or tribe or clan that lives a like culture with a like belief system. They share traits that are flexible, strong, resilient, and empty of distractions allowing the ability to remain present, in the moment, especially in a conflict. They are rooted to the earth yet pliable to the snows, winds and nature's distractions, etc.
Adding the hummingbird with its symbolic traits presents a symbol that epitomizes the karate-ka in the practice of the way of the empty hand.
The characters/ideograms mean "trying out a new sword or blade on soaked straw targets." The first character means, "test; try; attempt; experiment; ordeal," the third character means, "beheading; kill; murder."
This term is used in the sword arts of Japan. Originally it involved a human being as a test subject, i.e. how well it cut of heads or cut through parts of the body like the torso, shoulders, etc. I include it here simply because this is a martial art term effort even if it focuses mainly on the striking arts of karate of Okinawa.
These characters/ideograms mean, "breaking bricks, etc. (martial arts). The two kanji have a kana character attached but the two kanji have meanings in my source translator, the first character means, "test; try; attempt; experiment; ordeal," and the second one means, "proportion; comparatively; divide; cut; separate; split."
It involves an inference to testing and attempting by trial and error to separate, segment, split, etc. which loosely can mean to split bricks, wood, etc. but makes no reference by what means this is done.
In karate circles it involves pieces of wood and brick/cement blocks, etc. depending on what your trying to accomplish. The Okinawans used roof shingles and I might add those are tougher to break with the body than most wood and bricks used in the west.
It is used in a competitive manner with some who have made it into an art form for demonstration, etc. where they use very unusual materials to break with hands, feet, arms, knees, shoulders and the head. There are techniques coupled with knowledge of physics, etc. that must be known to achieve good breaks. In addition depending on the degree in which a practitioner breaks may require extensive makiwara training, etc. There are also tricks that need to be done and known to make it work.
In a fundamental sense most karate-ka who do minimal breaking the use of wood, i.e. 12" x 12" x 1/2" to 1" thick need not makiwara if taught and done properly and safely.
Is tameshiwari necessary to practice and learn karate-jutsu-do? No, it is more of a traditional form of practice but not necessary and many training facilities both sport and budo that do no breaking at all. Then there are some who take it to extremes like in the "Uechi-ryu" systems.
Apparently this training model was popularized by Sensei Masutatsu Oyama of the Japanese system of Kyokushin Karate. It requires one train with “karada-kitae” or “body hardening techniques.” This model is not a part of traditional karate. At least not the karate from the 1600’s to the late 1800’s of Okinawa, the birth place of karate. At least not as far as one can determine by the spotty documentation and historical information that is available.
The use of tameshiwari is questionable. It is a form or demonstration of how well a karate-ka has developed the body, mind and spirit through not just karate practice but karada-kitae, body hardening. It does provide feedback as to application of fundamental principles of martial systems as the failure to adhere to those principles can result in failed breaks as well as injuries. Principles like structure, alignment, speed, power, sequential locking and unlocking, etc. that result in proper form, focus, breathing, etc., that are also principles.
It is important to understand that karada-kitae and karate knowledge are not the only requirements a karate-ka must know, understand and gain proficiency in so that tameshiwari will work. The hardening of the body is one, the understanding and application of principles is second but the rest is as important as the first two, i.e. the materials to be used and choosing those materials along with how the physics work with the materials you choose to break.
You just don’t go out and purchase just any type of wood. When you have the right wood then you have to choose wood with the right grain for breaking. Even a 1/2” piece of wood will be harder to break or unbreakable if the grain is not right. Then there is density, moisture and other environmental type factors that affect the materials chosen.
Bricks depend on the material they are made of, the firing process and the mixture of materials that provide for varying levels of hardness, etc. must come into play when choosing that for tameshiwari.
Some might say that tameshiwari is indicative of mastery of a martial art. I contend that this is a false assumption. I have trained the uninitiated in breaking wood and bricks. When I gave demonstrations, unlike many other karate-ka who would break at demo’s, I would allow a gathering after the demo to provide them the “how it is done” aspects so that they don’t go away with the misconception that tameshiwari is indicative of proficiency and mastery in martial arts and/or self-defense.
Tameshiwari has its purpose but I believe it came into its acceptance from the introduction of karate into the Okinawan and Japanese educational systems just before the World War II. Tameshiwari is impressive especially to the uninitiated as a means to entice enrollment for schools who depend on enrollment and fees.
Please don’t misunderstand, like professional WWE wrestling it still takes skill, dedication and a body, mind and spirit way above what would be normal to achieve proficiency in tameshiwari especially those who take it to extremes. Even knowing and understanding all the processes that make this an “art form” it still requires discipline, dedication and diligence in training and practice to achieve mastery. It is a outward manifestation of a mind-state or mind-set that builds on confidence, etc. that makes a martial artist a martial artist.
It is a story written in a travelogue written by an unknown author from Satsuma. The author met a former member of the Satsuma magistrate office in Naha. This member of the Satsuma magistrate office served - if I remember correctly - 3 terms on Okinawa. He told the author a story about Okinawans breaking tiles with fist and either Nukite or Shuto. Would need to check the exact dates but it must have been around 1800 or so. The performance was done for the Satsuma magistrate (the office was called Zaiban bugyo). It sounded a bit like entertainment, but the narrator noted that "such a strike could kill man" or something along the lines. The tiles - according to reconstructions by other researchers - were of similar weight and density , etc., as todays red roof tiles. I think 5 of 6 tiles were broken or so.
Page 420, year 1801. Karate 1.0 by Andreas Quast
The character/ideogram means "seed; pip; kind; variety; quality; tone; material; matter; subject; theme; cause; source; trick; secret; inside story." The inside story with this word, character, ideogram can best be stated as follows, "To sow the seed of the way, to bring it to fruition." This is the Sensei quote that speaks to the sensei planting the seed that is the way of the particular martial system so that the practitioner can bring it to full bloom, fruition.
The seed is also representative of the spiritual side of martial systems. The seed symbolizes the "one" which is representative of the great tai chi that is the "one energy" of the universe, the tao, that is spit into its antagonistical and symbiotic halves called yin-yang. The seed spits and allows what resides within to spring forth and grow. The practitioners must apply care, water, soil, food, light from the sun, etc. so that it grows properly giving its fruit or blossoms representative of the entire wholehearted practitioner or flower/plant, etc.
The characters/ideograms mean, "other people; others; another person; unrelated person (i.e. not related by blood); outsider; stranger." The first character means, "other; another; the others," the second character means, "person."
Othering: It is about the self and the group or tribe especially in violent scenario's. The term actually opposes the "Same." When in a group that is "tight" there seems to have some sameness in common. It is cultural along with a belief system that supports the group cohesiveness whereby the group or tribe will work as one for survival. Other refers to that which is other than the initial concept considered. It is a person other than one's self. They are identified as "different."
This is a term used for social science to understand the processes of the tribe who will exclude "Others" to whom they want to subordinate or that don't fit the cultural belief system of that tribe. It is about comprehending who the "Other" person is and involves the roles for that person as it might compare to the group or tribe.
Segregation comes from othering as to this perception. To be admitted to a group the "Other" must meet a certain role be they male or female, etc. Othering is about determining that which is uncertain, as to the tribe, and what is certain for that tribe.
To "Other" a person or group is to provide the means of "dehumanizing" that person or group. It provides justifications any attempt by one group to civilize, according to that groups culture, beliefs and roles, another group and then, if that fails, provide the excuse to exploit the other group as "inferior" to themselves. It makes it easier to become violent and to kill the other group or tribe.
In martial arts circles even with groups studying and practicing the same system or style will tend to "Other" the factions of that system for the same reasoning defined here. Isshinryu for instance has at least five major factions within the system in the West. These factions or groups are tied to a particular person in a particular area of the country. Most from the Eastern seaboard of the America's and two from the Western. Then there are sub-factions that branched off from these five major tribes of Isshinryu. This is not just indicative of the Isshinryu system but all the systems and extends to other countries such as European and even Asian.
Groups who other tend to do this so they can utilize actions that fall into the "asocial" spectrum, i.e. this is how the military can train soldiers to kill the enemy, i.e. the word enemy itself is about "Othering" a group outside the group. This allows one human being to use more force on things that are "different then themselves." This can best be described as creating a mind-state that allow to squash bugs, hunt animals and fight humans, i.e. the more we convince ourselves that someone is not like us, the more force that can be used against that person, the faster we can apply that force against "Others" and we create a mind-state less likely to suffer the psychological ramifications one might encounter hurting one of the tribal members (remember survival of the tribe depends on not doing great damage, i.e. why social violence exists, of its members).
Others is something that is and can be trained. The more you are able to "Other" the more you can use force without any hesitation and hesitation can mean the difference between even life and death. The idea is to achieve a certain level of removal of victims humanity that might restrict the use of force at all levels.
This is a complex term that requires a good deal of study, training and practice under proper guidance and supervision as it can become something extreme resulting in a person being a predator vs. just a person doing their job in a violent discipline, i.e. police, military, etc.
Tanren [鍛錬 -n- 鍛練]
The word describes a concept of Okinawan Karate and symbolizes the efforts of the practitioner, i.e. the conditioning, the discipline, the training and tempering of both mind and body. The definition provided by one translation is the tempering; forging; hardening; disciplining; training of the karate-ka. The individual characters/ideograms mean; one, means "forge; discipline; train," the second means "tempering; refine; drill; train; polish." The second set of characters mean; one, means "exactly the same as the previous characters :-)."
The systems of Okinawa that utilize the tanren concept have some very specific means and methods of practice which can be a part of what it means to train/practice a "traditional Okinawan form of Karate." There is no jiyu-kumite or jiyu-kobo but rather "tanren," i.e. a combination of yobi-undo, junbi-undo, basics comprised of the punches and kicks, the kata and the makiwara. The primary concern of practitioners of this traditional/classical form of karate is to train the spirit or heart first while polishing the techniques as a means of polishing the mind. It had been mistakenly reversed for many western practitioners, i.e. those first generation students who brought karate to the west in the late fifties, etc.
In the excitement of leaning to compete in local matches coupled with a short duration tour of duty on the island many missed the importance of Seishin Shugyo and Tanren.
When used as a term in kata you will find it most directly related to the "sanchin kata" along with sanchin shime. It is also seen in the general kata of karate such as the practice of Seiunchin kata. It also depends on the system teaching the kata such as the differences between goju-ryu kata and shorin-ryu kata.
One of the reasons why some systems teach sanchin first and spend so much time and effort learning and practicing this dynamic kata. It is well suited when practiced correctly to learning about the fundamental principles of martial systems, i.e. principles that are the foundation to all systems, styles and applications.
It should be noted that once you become proficient and knowledgeable in such kata, both tanren oriented and not so oriented, you can use the tanren method of dynamic tension in any kata. It is used to develop, much like sanchin is also a health and fitness development kata, your internal and external physiokinetic abilities, i.e. gamaku, koshi, chinkuchi, etc. derived from principles application in practice and training.
Tanren, as a martial art term, comes from the forging of the metals that would become a finished sword or katana. It is that unique process of welding together several pieces of steel into a single block that is then hammered and folded a number of times that creates the uniqueness of the katana, the Japanese samurai sword.
It must be noted that other areas of martial arts also fall under this term such as those hojo undo tools and devices, i.e. makiwara, etc. Tanren kata work closer to a more modern dynamic or muscle and breath control or dynamic tension exercise referred to as isometrics (prolonged dynamic tension), etc.
Tanren is a term used with the term “kata [方].” The tanren kata can be any or all kata in the martial arts but one kata stands out as a true tanren kata, Sanchin. This form is a body and mind conditioning kata. It has a breathing technique that is both natural yet controlled deep rhythmic diaphragmatic breathing process. It is a process of both hardening and softening the body at certain moments that are governed by the movements within the kata as related or inter-connected to the breathing methods used in that kara.
This kata trains the mind to work the body from its center, the hara. It is this combination of movement, breathing and a systematic hardening-n-softening with a process of sequential locking and sequential unlocking that brings a special outcome from its practice in training and in application. This process is alluded to from the ken-po goku-i, i.e., one terse koan like statement of, “the manner of drinking or spitting is either soft or hard.”
It is a core kata in the Goju-ryu system because it actually teachings the student all the fundamental principles of martial systems necessary to achieve proficiency in karate.
It teaches us about control, control of the mind, body and spirit. It teaches us about efficiency, the power paradox, Ratio, natural action, reciprocity, training truth, breathing, posture, centerline, spinal alignment, Axis both minor and major, structure, heaviness and relaxation, wave energy, centeredness, body-mind, void, both centripetal and centrifugal force, sequential locking and relaxation, rooting, techniques vs. technique, compliment, economical motions, active movement, complex forces, live vs. dead energy, speed, rhythm, timing, balance, natural and unnatural motion, weak link, mind, mushin, kime, oneness, zanshin and being, character and so much more. (Note: to define and interconnect the above principles to your practice of sanchin read more through the book of martial power)
Sanchin not only teaches these principles but how to bring them all together holistically and wholeheartedly into that “one” complete kata that once mastered transitions to the other kata as each is learned. Learning this one kata may take a considerable amount of time but the benefits outweigh that requirement especially when learning additional kata, i.e., once you learn the principles and learn to apply them then learning the remainder of your system comes “faster.” A real paradox not well understood by those who have trained with sanchin taking a lesser position in the training and practice of karate.
Once a person’s sanchin with all its ancillary aspects becomes second nature than all others can be incorporated to give a bit more depth and breadth to a system of karate.
Sanchin as a tanren kata is the basis for learning about “chinkuchi,” or that explosive power applied when applied correctly with all principles aligning as a technique is applied in that moment.
Sanchin tanren is a complex type of kata that does not necessarily translate into any type of applicable bunkai. Yes, many attribute bunkai to that kata but that is a side order for that kata. Its true purpose is to teach you the essence that makes karate or any martial system work - its principles. Of all the kata this one is unique in this as it does not need to be practiced with applicable bunkai. Its core is to teach you those aspects that make “any martial art” a true combative and/or self-defense system.
Notes: The fundamental and key things to remember as well are Sanchin tensing is to be tense, not tight as to be rigid. It is about flow, rhythm and a certain cadence that makes it work. The breathing and hara control the entire kata pulling all the principles together into that one wholehearted dynamic kata. The overall kata is best compared to “dynamic tensioning” or what early health pioneers called, “Isometrics.” This is something to keep in mind when pursuing the kata. Leave its supposed applications as to fighting or self-defense as secondary or to other kata and leave the true essence that is sanchin remain focused on its principles. Even the health and fitness achieved practicing this kata is secondary to the principles taught.
The characters/ideograms mean "outside help; salvation by faith." The first character means, "other; another; the others," the second character means, "power; strength; strong; strain; bear up; exert." It is the reliance upon others for attaining one's own objective.
Tariki is reliance upon others. Where this starts to become an issue of concern is when it extends beyond the initial acquisition of knowledge necessary for the person to seek jiriki for issues, conflicts and life's way. It is relying on the perceptions, cultures and beliefs of others to fix yourself.
It may be necessary to seek out things from others as that is the way of the group, the dojo, and society but one must still seek within themselves answers to the questions that involve the self, you, the individual.
It is like making the assumption that others know better than you. Experts are not the end all of knowledge but merely higher conduits of the flow of knowledge one must assimilate and process with a modicum of skepticism and validation of other sources to decide for "yourself."
This is the essence of martial arts training, practice and applications. If you are angry all the time it is not up to others to find out why and do something about it, it is up to you.
The characters/ideograms mean "battle; fight; struggle; conflict." The character means, "war; battle; match."
The character/ideogram means "to fight; to battle; to combat; to struggle against; to wage war; to engage in contest." The character means, "war; battle; match." When coupled with the verb, conjugation/intransitive, it gives the additional meaning provided.
Why this word/character/ideogram in terminology? To gain an understanding as to the difference between sport and fight. In this instance, unlike in western terms, fight and combat, etc. all have the same essence with varying levels of meaning as to intent and intensity of fighting.
A game; a competition; a bout; a contest, etc. are not illegal. A fight; combat; waging war, etc. are illegal civilly speaking. Our society frowns heavily on fighting and when in the fight we find "no rules" or in a social fight we do find rules but those rules can be easily exceeded at any moment in time making it a fight leading to injuries at the minimum and death at the extreme. There are all kinds of levels in this one.
Tatakau, or to fight means dealing with many variables that must be acknowledged, expressed, trained and fully understood at all levels, i.e. before, during and after.
"Do you box?" she said. "No, I don't box - I fight," said Jesse. She said, "What's the difference?" Jesse said, "rules." This is a good example but very limited for to fight vs. box adds on additional baggage you have to understand and accept before you ever enter into martial arts or any self-defense program.
Kyogi [競技] game; match; contest. character means, "emulate; compete with; bid; bout; contest," second means, "skill; art; craft; ability; feat; performance; vocation; arts."
The characters/ideograms mean "to fold (clothes); to close (a shop); to vacate." The character means, "tatami mat; counter for tatami mats; fold; shut up; do away with."
The characters/ideograms mean "to tie; to bind; to link." The character means, "tie; bind; contract; join; organize; do up hair; fasten."
In Aikido: "the tradition of folding your teachers’ and sempai’s hakama reinforces a structural hierarchy and uniformity of methodology. It emphasizes the order of higher to lower ranking, consideration of the instructor, and mutual respect. Possibly the interaction builds personal connections between the lower ranking and the higher ranking members, while retaining the hierarchy, an important aspect in aikido, especially when you want to inculcate respect for elders and social etiquette in youngsters."
In the koryu: "nobody gets to handle somebody else’s dogi (training outfits) to put away or take out, or for that matter, no one touches another person’s training weapons without permission." also: "when folding your outfit for storage after practice, you usually want to fold it yourself so you know exactly how it was folded, so that when you put it on again, you can very quickly don it without being caught, literally, with your pants down, trying to figure out how to don it." also: "paying attention to such details are, I believe, an attempt to inculcate not just a physical, but also a mental preparedness, a way of thinking."
The act of folding and securing your karate-gi and equipment, i.e. meaning kobudo weaponry. This promotes a certain mental attitude and a training of the mind. It allows you to cultivate a mental attitude that is not superficial. It creates an attitude that from the moment you step through the training hall or dojo doors you will be observant, careful and watchful, i.e. attentive to your environment and having equipment properly prepared for immediate use.
Tatamikata [畳び方] is about the way you fold things. It originated in Japan where space was always at a premium. In homes how you stored things mattered so folding your things a certain way allowed them to be stored along with other things like linens, futon bedding, etc.
Tatamu is the orderly manner by which you fold something. In this case it is your karate-gi. You want to fold to best take advantage of the seams and places where folds, seemingly natural, were expected. This was to ensure that the item would fold as flat as humanly possible in a neat package to be put away within storage that had to store much more for space economy.
There is no specific right way to fold or tatamu but several that you can choose using the folding criteria already described. Sometimes it is a matter of how your dojo folds and cares for your tools of martial arts. It can be unique to the system of practice or the dojo affiliated with the systems practices.
As to dojo etiquette, if it is folder correctly and then stowed properly it is right.
Musubikata [結び方] is about how you tie things up. For karate it is about how you tie your bundle, your karate-gi, with the obi. When you are practicing other systems you might include cords and other such stuff unique to that system, i.e. aikido and iaido, etc.
All this stuff comes from the early Japanese culture, there were not zippers or buttons and everything was cinched and knotted.
Look at all this as a means to remain mindful of the intricacies found in martial arts. Look at it as a type of active meditation, i.e. keeping your mind in the moment of folding and tying up your uniform and gear.
In the world of koryu, it speaks to the practitioners state of mind, their attitudes, and their abilities in physical health, fitness, spatial awareness, and preparedness for the rigors of martial arts and the use of martial arts in a conflict.
Tate-ken [縦拳 ]
The two characters are used to symbolize the vertical fist which is a trademark of the Isshinryu system. At least at the time Isshinryu was officially named by its founder Shimabuku Tatsuo Sensei. The first character means, "the vertical; height; vertical (relationship); hierarchy." The second character means, "fist."
The vertical fist in the fifties and before was not used by Okinawan karate-ka who tended to keep the twisting punch as the main punching technique. It was Isshinryu and Tatsuo-san who first realized that in jiyu-kobo students failed to use the twisted punch and naturally used a vertical fist when punching and striking opponents. He decided to incorporate that into his new system of Isshinryu.
After the naming and over time others adopted the vertical fist for their systems while many maintained a traditional view involving the twist or corkscrew punch.
When you make a Isshinryu fist you put the thumb on top of the index finger approximately at the first main knuckle and press down to tighten the fist, wrist, and align the wrist to the forearm bones and muscles. There is a bunkai for the thumb on top of the fist. I use that thumb and its corresponding knuckles as a striking tool with out releasing my fist from its original Isshinryu tate-ken configuration. You can drive the thumb knuckle area adjacent to the thumb fingernail straight into the carotid artery area or the throat or the eye socket. It can be used laterally or mawashi-tsuke style into the jaw line or the temple. It can be driven into the floating ribs as well. The striking area from the knuckle closest to the wrist to the actual wrist area is used to hook behind the neck area or trap a strike and deflect it toward the outside.
The knuckle area from the first knuckle to the second (closest to the wrist) can be driven into the vital area's of the arms and legs, the floating ribs, and into the temple area. Lets not forget a strike from the Gedan area up into the groin in a vertical fashion.
Shimabuku Tatsuo Sensei, after many years of practice and teaching, decided that the best punch to use was the vertical punch. One of the reasons, as is known by stories told today, was none of the students used the twisting punch in kumite. There is a bit more to it than that.
Sensei taught the mean of punching. The mean being that middle road that is less likely to result in injury to the practitioner and results in a more economical technique. There are a lot of complicated movements in a punch and this provides for more opportunity of a break down in delivery. If not done properly injury results because of the movement with the strain on tendons and muscles if not done properly.
The vertical punch is considered the neutral position of the fist in relation to the elbow, forearm (the two bones; ulna and radius), wrist (...), and finally the fist. When you think of all that has to happen to reach that focal point in a punch where the two knuckles impact the target you begin to understand how things can go wrong.
Stiffening the forearm is essential along with other factors that result in an optimum punch. This is only a small part of the overall picture of punching. In order for the punch to work a practitioner must use the torso, or hara, to transmit force along with using the proper stance anchored to the ground which creates a driving force from the ground, up the legs, into the torso combined with the torque of the torso, into the upper body, to the shoulder, and finally down into the arm where that force is transferred from the end of the fist into the opponent.
This simplified explanation of the mechanics of a punch gives one an appreciation for the complexity of movement and the degree of force that is moving through each joint. If not timed properly along with proper form, posture, alignment, and rhythm so all are contributing exactly what is needed to strike properly.
If the hara is not utilized along with anchoring then the force can not be transmitted properly causing a bad punch and a bad punch can result in injury to any 'one' or 'any number' of spots along the power path.
This is why Sensei felt that the optimal punching position was a neutral one vs. the pronation of the wrist in a twisting punch. We all know that we use a variety of punches in karate yet we have this one primary punch, vertical fist/punch, that is chambered in a neutral position from start to finish. This is the main stay of the Isshinryu punching system. Remember that in karate-do we stress all techniques be based on an economy of motion for maximum effect ergo the tate-tsuke (ta'tay skee) in Isshinryu.
The characters/ideograms mean "master; expert." The first character means, "accomplished; reach; arrive; attain," and the second character means, "person."
When we speak of the cultural driver behind the martial arts traditions we think of master and disciple. This is one aspect of the feudal era that created the concepts used in a hierarchal society driven by form. Master in the context of the feudal era culture and belief systems, i.e. derived from confucianism, buddhism and zenism, created a master disciple system that is often still used in modern budo or martial arts.
Westerners embraced this system in martial arts simply because it matched the military hierarchal system of rank, etc. The martial arts today were a direct result of the military occupations in foreign Asian countries like Japan, Korea, Okinawa, etc. Our perceptions toward "master" are different than those of the systems we embraced.
Master-Disciples relationships of the times, i.e. feudal era, were without quarter and could result in death. It is different than to "master a discipline" such as karate goshin-do, aikido, kendo, etc. A master in the feudal era had absolute control over the disciple's under their authority. Master's in western society are merely de-facto validated "experts" in a field or discipline. That is of some contention as well in western circles.
A master or daimyo, i.e. 大名 powerful territorial lord, held life and death over all of their subjects and this transitioned over into the many disciplines that ran the Japanese society. Even tho the master-disciple of today's Japanese martial arts may not hold as absolute authority over others they still hold true to the spirit of that control over the dojo.
Western views are the opposite.
Master: a person who has people working for them as servants or slaves.
Master: having or showing very great skill or proficiency. To acquire complete knowledge and skill in a technique, art or accomplishment.
Synonyms: lord; boss; teacher; owner; maestro.
The characters/ideograms mean "Tatsuo - given name." The first character means, "dragon; imperial," the second character means, "husband; man." There is some contention as to how Tatsuo-san came to be given this name or nickname.
Shinkichi (Tatsuo) Shimabuku was born in Chan village now called Kinaka in Gushikawa City (note, as of this posting that area is now referred to as Uruma City) on September 19,1908. He was given a girls name as was the custom adopted by the Okinawan's from the Chinese to fool the malevolence spirits lurking about who would try to harm the new born baby. It was thought that the ill willed spirits would look for a girl baby only and not harm the the boy baby.
Only after they fooled the evil spirits would they have given the baby the Okinawan name Kana and the Japanese name Shinkichi. Shinkichi is the name found on Shimabuku's koseki or family register and was also on his passport when he visited the United States in 1964 and 1966.
One year after the war, he brings his family back to Okinawa. At age 39, in 1947, Shimabuku begins teaching karate at different locations. At first he calls his karate Chan migwa karate after Chotoku Kyan's nickname. He also takes the name Tatsuo meaning dragon man at this time.
There is no apparent reasoning other than cultural to take such a name but it is and was fitting since he was a sumuchi (fortune teller), etc. It should be noted that dragon's are important in their beliefs and that symbolism permeates Isshinryu through and through.
Tayumanu doryoku [たゆまぬ努力]
The phrase/characters/ideograms mean "diligence; unceasing efforts." The first character means, "toil; diligent; as much as possible," the second character means, "power; strength; strong; strain; bear up; exert."
In the west we sometimes do things in a "getting by" mode. In martial systems that are geared toward economic gain vs. building and promoting spirit tend to provide just enough to get by so to retain attendance and income. Budo is just the opposite and lives to the phrase, "tayumanu doryoku" or "diligence and unceasing efforts" to build spirit, discipline and control of self and by that their lives especially in the "fight or combat."
To truly gain mastery in martial arts one must do more than just get by and take a stance along with the spirit of true diligence in effort to accomplish and understand the true spirit of budo martial arts, i.e. in this case karate goshin-jutsu-do. To convey this to practitioners a sensei must adopt and promote a code of ethics that do not tolerate insincere and inefficient behavior but true sincerity, devotion, strength of mind and "diligence or tayumanu doryoku."
In this type of dojo environment the environment promotes unstinting effort where the practitioner provides self-approval and more importantly self-respect when in receipt of appropriate praise and due honor of the dojo and its members. It is an atmosphere, a culture if you will, that builds, honors and promotes an ability to endure against things that would normally be hard, painful with adversity to continue on in lieu of just "quitting."
The effort to instill in all practitioners an essence that channels behavior built and marked by diligence. Mastery of martial arts, of self, is to make the concept and practice of diligence a primary core personality trait of the person, the karate-ka, and the culture - starting in the dojo.
The characters/ideograms mean "halt;stop." The first character means, "halt; stopping," the second character means, "detain; faster; halt; stop."
A term used to stop an event. Some still use the term "yame ," a term to stop an event in a sport oriented competition for martial arts, i.e. a supotsu/sport event.
The characters/ideograms mean "adaptability; flexibility; malleability." The first character means, "suitable; occasional; rare; qualified; capable," the second character means, "apply; answer; yes; OK; reply; accept," the third character means, "sex; gender; nature."
Adaptability is to respond rapidly and effectively to unexpected events, i.e. think violence. It means a martial artist or self-defense person must have an ability to quickly drop a planned sequence of actions and replace them with a more appropriate set of actions or action. Using intuitive abilities you are alerted to unintended actions and those same intuitions alert you to unintended consequences coming from last second intuitive improvisations or adaptations.
Fostering malleability along side or in tandem with adaptability is a good part of what self-defense must be to protect against violent encounters. You have to shape and mold your self-defense actions so they remain pliable enough to form new actions as the moment dictates especially in violent encounters. This is even more important in those blitz like violent attacks that come from seemingly no where.
How is this accomplished, you accept the unacceptable through training, more training and practice along side more practice then you begin to supplement it all with as much reality based experiences as humanly possible. You work outside your comfort zone and you think outside the box. You adapt, improvise and overcome all obstacles of the mind, body and spirit.
Ideally you plan like this till you reach a point of experience that you may not need to plan. You are then at a level where that experience, all experience, allows you to act without the need to plan. You are then in the mode of expertise that carries in the moment.
Tekio-teki muishiki [適応的無意識]
The characters/ideograms mean "adaptive unconscious." The first character means, "suitable; occasional; rare; qualified; capable," the second character means, "apply; answer; yes; OK; reply; accept," the third character means, "bull's eye; mark; target; object," the fourth character means, "nothingness; none; ain't; nothing; nil; not," the fifth character means, "idea; mind; heart; taste; thought; desire; care; liking, the sixth character means, "discriminating; know; write."
Where we have developed, through nature, a kind of decision making mind capable of making very quick judgements based on little information. The AU sizes up the world, warns us of danger, sets goals, and initiates action in a sophisticated and efficient manner. We tend to move back and forth on a daily basis from our conscious and unconscious modes ot thinking, depending on the situation.
This is another way to describe a state of mind used in defense. It helps us understand what part of the brain, the lizard brain, we want to influence with knowledge and experiences that will provide us that kind of decision making that comes not from the conscious but the unconscious mind - faster and more accurate.
This is that collection of thoughts, images, and preconceptions we use as a result of repetitive and diligent training and practice sessions for self-defense. Properly encoded it will be a reliable way of defense that will keep the monkey brain in its cage when the violence, chaos and physical chemical dumps hit the body and mind.
Te no Jutsu [足の術]
The characters/ideograms mean "hand; art; technique; skill; means, etc." The first character means, "hand," the third character means, "art; technique; skill; means; trick; resources; magic."
This term or phrase is one I use to refer to all the following hand techniques. I find this easier since not much is needed to define the various fundamental techniques as that is the venue of the dojo where a full fledged sensei can transfer that tactile knowledge directly where written words cannot.
(note: this is exclusive to marital arts/karate)
Hakuryoku Tsuki [迫力突き]
The characters/ideograms mean "lunge punch; a thrust punch; a stab punch." The first character means, "urge; force; imminent; spur on," the second character means, "power; strength; strong; strain; bear up; exert," the third character means, "stab; protruding; thrusting; thrust; pierce; prick," the last character is similar to a suffix in that it extends the meaning of the characters to mean in martial arts "thrust punch."
The standard word in English spelling used in Isshinryu to designate the lunge punch is "Oi-tsuki." I was unable to find any translation that matched this english written word and instead found Hakuryoku tsuki or lunge punch.
I did find a reference with characters/ideograms that puzzles me a bit. I guess that is the essence and culture of the writing used in Asian martial arts. Its nature you might say and why it is so natural in describing things that have many views, perspectives and perceptive meanings. Lets take a look at Oi-tsuki, the lunge punch.
The characters/ideograms in most martial arts dojo means "lunge punch; a punch with the lead arm, i.e. your left leg is forward in seisan-dachi so your left arm and hand are used to perform a lunge punch. The characters/ideograms on my source(s) for translation does not give a meaning overall but the first character means, "chase; drive away; follow; pursue; meanwhile," the third character means, "stab; protruding; thrusting; thrust; pierce; prick."
Even when separated the character for the "oi" part does not give any meaning that would indicate a punch, strike, etc. When the entire set of characters are placed in one translation system you get "oidzuki." Oidzuki in another translation system says it is a "family name." It makes me wonder if we have the right words and characters for the meaning in martial arts circles.
I have heard the word/term used by Japanese/Okinawan's in the dojo so would assume that maybe the meaning in English is not translated exactly, i.e. in this instance due to the nature of the characters/ideograms I suspect "exact" translations are not "exacting" because of the difficulty and disparities between the cultures, etc.
Age-tsuki [上げ突き]; rising punch
The characters/ideograms mean "rising punch." The first character means, "above; up," the third character means, "stab; protruding; thrusting; thrust; pierce; prick."
Choku-tsuki [直突き]; straight punch
The characters/ideograms mean "straight punch." The first character means, "straightaway; honesty; frankness; fix; repair," the second character means, "stab; protruding; thrusting; thrust; pierce; prick."
Gyaku-tsuki [逆突き]; punch with the rear arm; reverse punch
The characters/ideograms mean "reverse punch; punch with rear arm." The first character means, "inverted; reverse; opposite; wicked," the second character means, "stab; protruding; thrusting; thrust; pierce; prick."
Kagi-tsuki (鉤突き), hook punch
The characters/ideograms mean "hook punch." The first character means, "hook; barb; gaff; brackets," the second character means, "stab; protruding; thrusting; thrust; pierce; prick."
Mawashi-tsuki (回し突き), roundhouse punch
The characters/ideograms mean "roundhouse punch." The first character means, "round; game; revolve; counter for occurrences," the third character means, "stab; protruding; thrusting; thrust; pierce; prick."
Morote-tsuki (双手突き), augmented punch using both hands
The characters/ideograms mean "augmented punch using both hands." The first character means, "pair; set;comparison; counter for pairs," the second character means, "hand," the third character means, "stab; protruding; thrusting; thrust; pierce; prick."
Tate-tsuki (立て突き), vertical fist punch into the middle of the chest (short-range)
The characters/ideograms mean "vertical fist punch (into the middle of the chest)." The first character means, "stand up; rise; set up; erect," the third character means, "stab; protruding; thrusting; thrust; pierce; prick."
Ura-tsuki (裏突き), upside-down fist punch into solar plexus area (short-range) also use tate-ken for vertical fist [[縦拳]
The characters/ideograms mean "upside down fist punch (into solar plexus area)." The first character means, "back; amidst; in; reverse; inside; palm; sole; rear; lining; wrong side," the second character means, "stab; protruding; thrusting; thrust; pierce; prick."
Yama-tsuki (山突き) or Rete-zuki, two-level double punch (combination of ura-zuki and jodan oi zuki)
The characters/ideograms mean "two-level double punch." The first character means, "mountain," the second character means, "stab; protruding; thrusting; thrust; pierce; prick."
I am making a great deal of assumptions since I have heard these terms used in Asia over what we westerners assume they mean in our dojo. This is actually only an effort to understand cultural beliefs through the system of writing that has influenced how martial arts exists in its traditional/classical forms which have been adopted here in the west even if only partially and without real understanding.
Te no Uchi [手の内]
The characters/ideograms mean "palm; skill; scope of one's power; one's intention." The first character means, "hand," the third character means, "inside; within; between; among; house; home."
The term means "inside the hand." It refers to a particular way of handling various kobudo implements, weaponry such as the bo, sai, tuifa, nunchaku, iku, etc. It is how you grip the weapon. Much like yin-yang or hard-soft concepts this is similar to the fundamental principles of martial systems, i.e. a positive relaxation that promotes speed and when applied properly with a sudden hardness results in power (which includes other principles that make this work).
The goal of te-no-uchi is to use the hands to manipulate the weapon effectively while remaining within the principles that hold the weapon with just the right amount of tension to maintain control yet not lose it or tighten up to restrict effective movement and applications. It allows economic motions with positive relaxation so when contact is achieved to an adversary target the dynamic tension along with things like body movement for momentum, etc. achieves power - power in martial systems as generated by proper application of fundamental principles of martial systems.
The concept most important to remember regarding te-no-uchi is each weapon results in a variation on how the hand holds the weapon or how the weapon lives "inside the hand." Properly done the weapons should feel as if it has a life of its own and you are merely the means to its end. Take a look into how a sword is held with its complexities to get an idea of kobudo handling or handling of kobudo implements.
The bo or staff requires one type or variation of being held with the hand while the tuifa or tonfaa requires another variation of being held within the hand. It also means we must change the way our mind thinks and perceives as to weaponry, kobudo, because it is the weapon that dictates things and not the hand or the karate-ka. Westerners tend to look at this from the opposite, i.e. how the karate-ka handles and holds the weapon vs. how the weapon dictates how it resides within the hand.
Tension negates speed and power while positive relaxation promotes both to their maximum efficient applications. Finding the "balance" in this dictates the life of the weapon. Retention and use of a weapon is its life while lose of said weapon from improper use, i.e. the weapons jumps from the hand, means the weapons dies and as a result the martial artist must die. Balance of the yin-yang that is te-no-uchi.
Also, keep in mind that what you see in an adversaries te-no-uchi tells volumes as to strategies and tactics necessary to not lose. It is also best to keep in mind that a proficient adversary will see the same in your te-no-uchi. Te-no-uchi for kobudo will indicate levels of master in the arts and by association how well they have mastered their core system, i.e. karate-goshin-do.
Lets take this discussion of a term one step outside this box. Te-no-uchi applications apply to how one grapples, uses tegumi, tuite and kyusho. This also has the same complexities and nuance per technique as does a weapon.
The characters/ideograms mean, "(hand) towel." The first character means, "hand," the second character means, "wipe; mop; swab."
A thin Japanese hand towel made of cotton. It is typically about 35 by 90 centimeters in size, plain woven and is almost always dyed with some pattern. It can be used for anything a towel could be used for - as a washcloth, dishcloth, but often as a headband, souvenir or decoration. Tenugui are still popular as souvenirs, decorations, and as a head covering in kendo, where it functions as a sweatband, as extra padding beneath the headgear (men), and to identify the participants by team color.
The characters/ideograms mean "fighting in numerous battles." The first character means, "revolve; turn around; change," the second character means, "war; battle; match."
On the surface this term seems pretty obvious yet underneath in martial arts is the not so obvious that needs to be dug out and discovered by each practitioner. To expand on this term think in terms of categories, i.e. sport, fight or combat. Sport is obvious as to tournament matches while fighting becomes more complex as it is a civil action that may involve defending in social or asocial or predatory violent attacks, etc. Last, not least, is combat where I mean military engagements be they police actions or all out war.
When you earn the label tensen or veteran (i.e. experience by fire so to speak) then how that works is determined by the category of said numerous battles.
Ti [手] vs. Te [手]
The character/ideogram means "hand; arm; forepaw; foreleg; handle; trouble; care; effort; means; way; trick; move; technique; workmanship; hand; handwriting; one's hands; one's possession; ability to cope; hand (of cards); direction; move." The first and only character means, "hand."
Ti is an Okinawan dialect that means the same as Te or hand. Ti is the name or term used on Okinawa to describe the ancient indigenous Okinawan martial art we call today empty hand or kara-te. The traditional/classical form of ancient practice is referred to as "Ti" to give one the means to reference a way of practice and training that is the absolute essence of karate that is the cultural gift of the ancient Okinawan masters who without means we would not have today's karate systems, styles and branches.
Ti is pronounces "tea or tee."
Ti Gumi [手組]
The characters/ideograms mean "te/ti gumi." The first character means, "hand," the second character means, "association; braid; plait; construct; assemble; unite; cooperate; grapple."
Literally Sparring; The term Ti Gumi is "suggested" for use with beginner students in order to move away from Kumite by introducing basic ideas from Kakie and Iri Kumi; In the early 20th century several authors described a free-style sparring in Okinawan Karate with the term Ti Gumi; In Uchinaguchi (the Okinawan dialect), the word Ti Gumi is written with the same Kanji (Chinese characters) as Kumite but in reverse order; Listed below are a few personal perspectives of Ti Gumi.
This term came from the book I just finished written by Mr. Dave Lowry, "The Karate Way." It means, "Moving the body so it shifts 90 degrees, by rotating both feet."
The first character means, "turn; shift; alter," "turning around (once); suddenly; abruptly; revolve; turn around; change." The second character means, "round, rotate, revolve, go around, turn, spin," "times; round; revolve; counter for occurrences."
I have practiced this my entire karate career and never knew their was a term for this move. In kata I use tenkai to first "look" in the direction I turn before committing to a move or technique in attack, counter-attack, or defense. I have always believed this is important.
This move, for me, includes the sudden turn of the head in the same direction. This helps in a high stress situation to alleviate the tendency of the mind and vision to tunnel thus blocking out what you should be seeing which is everything. The head turn also helps one to keep from becoming disoriented and/or dizzy. When we move quickly especially with the eyes and head you can lose focus and feel a bit of vertigo. The sudden shift with sudden focus, i.e. looking forward, turn head and feet suddenly and then directing the focus of the eyes on the target, etc. lessens this.
Example: when you are playing on the playground with your kids and they want to spin you on that device that acts similar to a merry-go-round if you don't constantly direct your focus on stationary objects as you spin you will become dizzy and your body will lose balance, etc. This movement and direct focus of the eyes when performing Tenkai alleviates this so you remain focused and balanced.
When I perform kata that requires me to change direction I use tenkai. I will do a sudden pivot 90 degrees while shifting the body and the head/eyes toward that direction. I can also keep the head pivoting and perform sudden eye focus 180 degrees from my original position while my feet remain at the 90 degree stop point. This gives me the ability to sense/see what obstacles are in that field of view.
Tenkai, a new term to use in explaining what we do in practice and training.
Tenri no Maki [天理]
The two characters/ideograms mean "natural laws; rule of heaven." The first character means, "heavens; sky; imperial," and the second character means, "logic; arrangement; reason; justice; truth."
It means loosely in martial arts circles "the laws of nature and humanity, i.e. [天理人道]" or "reason in natures cycles." This directly effects your fighting ability or your mind and body connection. Your fighting ability can be effected by:
The time of day. We all live on an internal clock that is effected by the location or where we live, the time of day, the weather such as light or dark; windy or still; rain/snow/sleet; hot or cold; thunder and lightning or clear and sunny; superstition; and you need to be fully "aware" of these factors in training/practice before it comes to self-defense.
The biggest opponent we have to consider and conquer is our own ego. We have to see past its influences so we may "see" and "hear" what is real or reality. If we continue to fool ourselves by not seeing our faults and foibles then those same faults/foibles will be our downfall.
One Sensei said to me that if he gets a perspective practitioner who simply wants to learn to fight then he looks for his or her strengths and builds on that. It is quick, easy, and fast so that person gets what they want. If the Sensei gets a perspective "deshi" who wants to learn the "way" of the "empty hand" or any other fighting/martial art then he or she must look for that deshi's weaknesses and help guide them in overcoming which starts with the ego.
To let go, to actively see and hear with out reservations or pre-conceived notions or ideas is difficult. That is why sometimes I tell "deshi" to shut up, listen, see, be aware, and just train. When Sensei or senpai talk and act it is for their benefit and since they are Sensei and senpai it is best to see, listen, and do what is being taught.
Thinking of the Kenpo-gokui and Isshinryu you will need to realize that the sun and moon also have an effect on you. Since everything is connected, think butterfly effect, the sun and moons position effects the earth which drills down to its effects on the human condition. Take it a step further to understand that the position of all the stars and planets have effects on earth and all its inhabitants be it humans or plants or animals or the tides or the ebb and flow of the earth's crust, etc.
It has been said by the old masters that to practice "sanchin" one must practice in the early morning while facing the sun as it rises up for the day. This alludes to the "facts" that we humans feel and are affected by the sun, moon, stars, time of day, location on the earth, etc.
The characters/ideograms mean "(job) turnover." In the martial art of karate from Okinawa it means, "to change direction or course." The first character means, "revolve; turn around; change," the second character means, "somebody; person; one's station in life."
An Okinawan term relating to the movement of the body in relation to an opponent by shifting away or into a persons space with a focus on the transition of the feet. A practitioner would use this as a part of their shifting from stance to stance in relation to the moment in combat while performing ma-ai as a result of shifting into or away from the opponent. One of three basic elements of the Okinawan Traditional system called "Ti."
Tenshi and tensho are taught as a fundamental to the kata. Both are used to develop non-telegraphed, efficient, and rapid movement. Many students are first taught the different stances used within their style which are used in kata practice. Then they are taught how to move properly resulting in tenshin practice. This helps the student to develop proper movement along with body alignment, balance, hyoshi (tempo), ma-ai (distancing), and timing.
Tenshin is an intricate part of kata training, an intricate part of karate training. Coupled with Tensho, transition of hands, it provides a means to train thoroughly within kata that has significant applications for combat and kumite.
Utilizing the tori/uke relationship in training a pair of students can practice distancing and stance transitions to get the "feel" for how it all relates to facing an opponent.
The tori would make the first movement either into or away from the uke while the uke responds with an appropriate response in movement to take advantage of the move by tori for either defense or offense. The actual defensive/offensive technique is not performed since this drill is taught before Kihonteki yet in later practice it will have the appropriate technique visualized during practice.
As students progress this will naturally migrate into actually performing hand transitions along with foot transitions; tenshin and tensho practice
Tensho deals with hand movement in the martial arts. The first character means, "hand," and the second character means, "move; motion; change; shift."
An Okinawan term relating to the transition of the hands. This portion of training is added into tenshin after the student learns the te-no-bu or upper body techniques. This is then practiced solo with performance imagery until the student becomes fluid. Then students are paired off into tori and uke relationships to begin practice. The only difference between tenshin/tensho practice and yokusoku kumite is contact. The tori and uke will practice much like the previous description of tenshin practice but with out actual contact.
Once they are proficient in this form of practice then it is time to move into yokusoku kumite which is prearranged techniques with physical contact. This also occurs after leaning the Ashi-no-bu or foot techniques.
In this practice tori and uke no longer move freely but use specified sets of techniques which come from the fundamentals/basics and kata practice.
As you can see there are many transitional forms of practice that take the practitioner through the various stages that will result in free form combat techniques and kumite.
The characters/ideograms mean "iron-ribbed fan." The first character means, "iron," the second character means, "fan; folding fan."
Tessenjutsu [鉄扇術] means "martial art based on the use of the iron fan." It is a war fan used by Japanese of feudal Japan, samurai, as a surprise weapon much like our modern military use hand-to-hand combat when weapons are unavailable, etc. The tessen or war fan was multifunctional and a hidden weapon where it can be used to remain cool during Japan's humid/hot weather while becoming a weapon if needed. The fan was also used by samurai commanders to point in different ways when issuing commands to his samurai.
Folding fans with outer spokes made of heavy plates of iron which were designed to look like normal, harmless folding fans or solid clubs shaped to look like a closed fan. Samurai could take these to places where swords or other overt weapons were not allowed. Tessen was also used for fending off arrows and darts, as a throwing weapon, and as an aid in swimming.
Toboso no Oshie [枢の教え]
The characters/ideograms mean "the door teachings." The first character means, "hinge; pivot; door," and the second character means, "teach; faith; doctrine."
This phrase/term/characters/ideograms are a martial art technique taught by the system created by Miyamoto Musashi as written in the gorin no sho. The phrase deals with the symbolism of a door with a pivot point in its center axis. It talks further about how an unarmed person or even one with a sword who finds their proximity close and within the area that a cut cannot occur can turn their body by pivoting at the central axis so the body is as narrow as possible then deliver a blow to the chest with your shoulder.
Depending on the angle and direction applied, i.e. if coming from below and driving in and upward can destroy the chest cavity and not only kill or disable the opponent it can unbalance them causing them to succumb to gravity. Musashi Sensei calls this "The Door Teaching."
The characters/ideograms mean "feel; touch." The first character means, "hand," the second character means, "contact; touch; feel; hit; proclaim; announce; conflict."
Touch is almost as critical a sense that should be openly addressed in martial arts training and practice. In the early years it was mostly glossed over except in simple grappling methods of karate but today with all the ground work and jujitsu type disciplines touch has gained momentum in training and practice. A good instructor will help a practitioner understand through actual hands on instruction letting them tactually feel how the body moves, etc.
Tezawari or touch also comes into play in many other facets including the touch felt when someone first reaches out to touch you either in a non-confrontational way or one that is meant to be violent - the touch and what you feel matters in how a touch is perceived.
Then there is the senses as to dominant sense modes that allow communications to be greater understood. This is a great teaching tool for the sensei tool box.
1. Toi [敏い] maai (Toh-ma): (to far away to strike) You are not even in issoku itto no ma. You cannot reach your opponent and your opponent cannot reach you either (Definition by All Japan Kendo Federation). Basically your shinai and your opponent's shinai are not touching.
2. Chikai [近い] maai (Chika-ma): (to close to effect proper attack) Close distance. When you get in further from issoku itto no ma, you are in chika-ma. You can easily reach your opponent but your opponent also can reach you easily (Definition by All Japan Kendo Federation).
3. Uchi [内] -ma: (perfect striking distance) The distance for you to strike. This is the distance you MUST strike.
Originally a Kendo set of terms. This is an adaptation to the marital arts in general and with specifics toward karate goshin-jutsu-do. This is the method, traditional culture involved, used to help practitioners understand the various distances in relation to you and an adversary in a fight. Toh-ma the outer layer of the combative zones where both combatants cannot effect any technique or tactic - too far away to stike, Uchi-ma zone where either combatants can apply a perfect strike or tactics- perfect striking distance, and Chika-ma the zone where either party cannot effect a proper technique - to close to effect proper attack.
A lot depends on these three definitions when coupled with other data necessary to learn how to apply techniques according to ma-ai. The personal zones of the individuals may be the same but in most cases different, i.e. one may have a smaller zone while the other a larger personal zone. The smaller zone may need to apply strategies and tactics that take them in close enough to reach Uchi-ma while forcing the other to enter a Chika-ma where one may attack while the other has to take a moment to adjust distance to achieve Uchi-ma. Simple yet complex and always changing.
Another factor is just that, the chaos of change. The toh-ma, uchi-ma and Chika-ma are in constant motion and you can enter and leave any one of them depending on both your own strategies and tactics and those of your adversaries strategies and tactics.
The characters/ideograms mean, "jumping exercises." The first character means, "hop; leap up; spring; jerk; prance; buck; splash; sputter; snap," the third character means, "carry; luck; destiny; fate; lot; transport; progress; advance," the fourth character means, "move; motion; change; confusion; shift; shake."
The Shinjinbukan Honbu Dojo of Okinawan "Ti" describes tobi-undo as follows, i.e. jumping drills to target the muscles used for foot strikes. These target the core , i.e. calves and ankle muscles; while maintaining a straight body center axis and avoiding the swinging of arms or the stomping the floor with the heels.
The following are typical examples of the types of tobi-undo performed at the Shinjinbukan Honbu Dojo:
Nawatobi - Jumping Rope
Kaeru Tobi - Frog Jumps
Usagi Tobi - Rabbit Jumps
Sutobi - Short fast jumps in Heiko Dachi and Neko Ashi Dachi
Sutobi Swing - Short fast jumps with swing in heiko dachi or neko ashi dachi
Sutobi Aruki - Short fast jumps with waling like motions
Choyaku (Takaku ni) - High Vertical Jumps
Sutobi Kaiten - Short fast jumps with 90degree and 180degree turns
Sutobi Kaiten - Short fast jumps with 180degree turns
Sutobi to Ashi Kotai - Short fast jumps, change feet in Neko Ashi
The characters mean "lizard." The first character means, "a lizard," and the second character means, "lizard." I felt it apropos to include both characters/ideograms for the importance of knowing and understanding the lizard brain was important to martial artists.
Tokage no no [蜥蜴の脳] is the specific toward "lizard brain." What is the lizard brain you say. Well, the limbic system of the brain equals the "monkey brain" and the cerebellum equals the "lizard brain." The neo-cortex is our logical brain, the human brain. The logical brain controls our ability for rational thought and other high brain functions. The limbic system, the monkey, is driven by our emotions and more while the cerebellum is the lizard brain controlling the movement, actions and other bodily functions that run mostly on auto-pilot.
You breathe, blink, and heart beats according the the lizard brain control center. It tells you when you need to eat, drink water and when to run from tigers, lions and bears - your survival stuff. Your lizard brain reacts to dangers in our environment with out conscious thought, survival instincts. It reacts to the now, not the past or future but the exact moment, now, the present. It works on reality according to perceptions from sensory input while the monkey tends to draw on fantasy which comes from the change of the logical into the fantastical letting the monkey out of its cage and that wrecks havoc with the lizard.
The lizard can be trained to act, react, etc. You can get it to respond to danger in the moment in other ways other than what mother nature provided, i.e. freeze or flee or fight, etc.
The characters/ideograms mean "unique form; singular form." The first character means, "special," the second character means, "uncommon; queerness; strangeness; wonderful; curious; unusual," the third character means, "mould; model; type; kata (standard form of movement, posture, etc. in martial arts, sports, etc.)
Tokui kata or gata are those particular forms, i.e. karate kata, that are kata specifically suited to an individual which tend to fit their culture, personalities, body type, and skills, etc. One would learn all the fundamentals and basics along with makiwara and hojo undo, etc. then the sensei would choose the one or two kata that fit that person thus giving them the best and most creative kata to form the individuals fighting capabilities.
It is believed this was the real reasoning behind spending the what westerners perceive as exorbitant time to learn one or two kata. This is and would be the core to their fighting systems. It might also better explain why kata tend to be different from person to person and system to system and style to style even when on a basic level appear to have similarities.
The characters/ideograms mean "tonfa (traditional Okinawan weapon similar to a nightstick)." The first character means, "rotation; go around," the second character means, "a cane."
Tonfua, Tonfaa or Tuifa, what ever you call it this describes a unique Okinawan martial art weapon, kobudo. It is a piece of wood with an handle traditionally made from red oak and wielded in pairs. It extends along the forearm so that the end extends about an inch or so past and the other end extends four or five inches beyond the fist formed when holding the handle. It has been copied into a PR-24 baton used by western police departments.
The tonfua can be spun in either direction by the grip used and the energy used to strike out at an adversary. Some belief it is derived from the wood handles used to turn mill stones. Then there are the beliefs its origins are Chinese as taught by Chinese emissaries or when Okinawan Toudi masters traveled to China to learn the art of the fist. It appears in China as well as in Indonesian and Filipino cultures in one form or another.
The characters/ideograms mean, "art of defeating (and capturing) an adversary with one's bare hands." The first character means, "catch; capture," the third character means, "hand."
This term is used interchangeably with the term "tuite." Torite/Tuite serve as extended bunkai to the fundamental or basic karate bunkai. It is an extension, i.e. a technique that captures an adversaries attacking limb or weapon then manipulation of that same limb by stressing weak points or joints to gain an advantage against the attacker.
Okinawan Tuite (also Torite) is about applying certain grabbing techniques, i.e. the fingers of the grabbing hand applying pressure to weak points of the joints, etc., to help immobilize or move the adversary into a submissive position for striking, etc. It is an art form or a jutsu form of grasping and grappling in Okinawan karate.
The characters/ideograms mean "projection." The fist character means, "throw; discard; abandon; launch into; join; invest in; hurl; give up," and the second character means, "shoot; shine into; onto; archery."
Tosha or projecting is how you project yourself to others with a more esoteric meaning. It is that something you detect of another that seems to say this person is confident, capable and efficient even when you view that person and plain and ordinary as to looks, etc. It is that projection of aura that says don't fool with this person, they are capable and for martial artists it says they are capable of handling violence.
It is a "quality" that projects certain things unlike "real" characteristics such as physical beauty and mental knowledge. All this comes form self-perceptions that you identify with and characterize yourself as being of a particular type. It is a method that tells others via their perceptions something unique and confident, etc. about you. It is your internal image of self.
A good example is one who is a product of military training. It makes you stand tall, exude confidence and project the ability to win conflicts. You march with authority not just walk the street. You hold your head high with self-respect and this projects to others confidence, ability and honor. It says, I am a force to be reckoned with.
Karate and its practices and training can provide the tools to build these abilities to project but it is still up to the individual to augment their internal image in a positive and strong way.
First and foremost, this is to my view, belief and perception to be the one most important martial word, character and ideogram I have ever posted on to date. So, please read it carefully and take heed.
The characters/ideograms mean "books." The first character means, "map; drawing; plan; unexpected; accidentally," and the second character means, "write." I am not sure but together it means books. Books in the sense for this particular post two books that will enlighten, entertain and educate the individual toward a more healthy and fit life - two important aspects of any discipline be is sport, martial or economic (i.e. jobs, work, etc.).
Tou Te [唐手]
The characters/ideograms mean "karate; empty handed." The first character means, "T'ang; China," the second character means, "hand."
This term is the early one used to denote the Okinawan system of fighting that began as "Ti" in Okinawan dialect. It is derived from the strong influences of the Chinese military fighting systems and led to both Tou Te and Kobudo, lumped under the singular title of karate.
Per CFA article, "Everything in Okinawa, from agriculture to customs, language, art, and religion has been influenced by Chinese thoughts and philosophies. It is believed that a part of this cultural aspect of Okinawa were the Chinese military systems that were intermingled with the indigenous fighting methods, called Ti, to create what is now known as karate (note the original character means China yet is is pronounced "kara" much the same as Empty is Kara with the character "空") CFA Vol.2.No.25 (Issue#48), The Footprints of Kanbun Uechi.
Tou te is also written in English as "toudi." This is why the characters/ideograms are important in understanding the cultural customs and beliefs that drove the creation and propagation of the fighting arts of that area of the world.
The characters/ideograms mean "patching; cobbling together." The first character means, "inherit; succeed; patch; graft (tree)," the second character means, "touch; contact; adjoin; piece together."
In this rare and maybe iffy instance the main theme is patching, i.e. patching application of techniques in a fight, self-defense or combatives, to make something, i.e. techniques and combinations, work. We tend to sacrifice the fundamental principles of martial systems along with other factors to achieve the goal of completion even when we know it will leave us vulnerable and also leave our application of waza inefficient and with out maximum speed and force.
As SD and martial arts practitioners and teachers we must work diligently to keep the parts as a whole intact and efficient - to the maximum possible as humans in the adrenaline induced state of defense.
The characters mean "master; expert; adept of hand." The first character means, "accomplished; reach; arrive; attain," the second character means, "person," and the third character means, "hand."
This term defers to the master/expert of the art of "Te or Ti in Okinawan dialect" which is also translated as "hand." Since Te involves today in its new combination of empty hand and weapons hand, karate and kobudo, we can extrapolate that a master of Te or Ti is both empty and weapons master.
Tsuki komu [突き込む]
The characters/ideograms mean "penetrating punch; punch delivered with the feeling of thrusting downwards." The fist character means, "stab; protruding; thrust; pierce; prick; collision; sudden," the third character means, "crowded; mixture; in bulk; included; (kokuji)."
A type to toudi based punch where it is delivered as a downward thrust punch.
Tsuki hanasu [突き放す]
The characters/ideograms mean "separating punch; punch delivered with the feeling of thrusting upwards; to thrust away; to refuse bluntly; to forsake." The fist character means, "stab; protruding; thrust; pierce; prick; collision; sudden," the third character means, " set free; release; fire; shoot; emit; banish, liberate."
This also explains the rising punch used in Isshinryu and other systems or styles.
Tsu mi me [通身眼]
The characters/ideograms mean "only through eye." The first character means, "traffic; pass through; avenue; commute; counter for letters, notes, documents, etc," the second character means, "somebody; person; one's station in life," the third character means, "eyeball."
Only through eye (communication Gen), meaning "the whole body is the eye." This could refer to the "third eye" of many ancient beliefs where one is a reference to the third eye in Indian cultures. In martial systems the whole body is trained thus making it the proverbial eye to which one sees their entire being as referenced in the term "shin-budo." It provides meaning toward the modern versions of Budo, i.e. whereby changes made to original Budo after the demise of feudal era Japanese warrior methods, martial arts. This shift toward a more self-introspection with goals toward self-improvement through a physical discipline involving the body and the mind or spirit or both as a connected one whole of mind/spirit/heart.
In martial arts the discipline of the body provides a venue to see as if through a third eye the many facets that are of humanity. In the Asian versions this involves the practice of various religious like disciplines like "shintoism and/or buddhism, etc." This eye through the physical of martial arts turns inward toward the self with an effort to sublimate the ego and pride for a more holistic social driven belief and cultural system beneficial to both the individual and the group as a whole.
When learning and performing martial systems one tends to see and feel a microcosmic reference to life and the world as nature intended. It is used to reconnect the body, mind and spirit to the universe by such acts as connecting to the Earth through kamae, i.e. transitional stances, etc. In a progressive manner one builds spirit by the practice of the progressive levels of learning required for shinbudo.
It is the discipline of martial systems to create a whole body ability to see within the self for improvement toward a form of enlightenment, a wholehearted approach to learning, practicing and finally teaching a martial system - a system representative of life and living according the Heaven and Earth.
Tsuyoi nintai [強い忍耐]; Tsuyoi nintai-ryoku [強い忍耐力]; Tsuyoi nintai [強い忍耐]
Forbearance, Perseverance, and Patience
Tsuyoi nintai [強い忍耐]
The characters/ideograms mean "strong forbearance." The first character means, "strong," the second character means, "endure; bear; put up with; conceal; secrete; spy; sneak," the third character means, "-proof; enduring."
Tsuyoi nintai or strong forbearance is a hallmark trait sought after by those who pursue a more traditional form of martial practice.
Tsuyoi nintai-ryoku [強い忍耐力]
The characters/ideograms mean "strong perseverance." The first character means, "strong," the second character means, "endure; bear; put up with; conceal; secrete; spy; sneak," the third character means, "-proof; enduring," the fourth character means, "power; strength; strong; strain; bear up; exert."
Tsuyoi nintai-ryoku or strong perseverance is a hallmark trait sought after by those who pursue a more traditional form of martial practice.
Tsuyoi nintai [強い忍耐]
The characters/ideograms mean "strong patience." The first character means, "strong," the second character means, "endure; bear; put up with; conceal; secrete; spy; sneak," the third character means, "-proof; enduring."
Tsuyoi nintai or strong patience is a hallmark trait sought after by those who pursue a more traditional form of martial practice.
All martial artists of traditional or classical practice tend to lean more toward those aspects of self-improvement by developing and enhancing the ability at self-reflection. To develop a nature of patience, tolerance, unruffled self-control and restraint especially under stressful scenario's such as adversity. It is a trait to acquire and build the ability to slow down a natural survival instinct to retaliate, it is the ability to restrain or avoid expressions of resentment and a strong ability to restrain themselves when under provocation.
These traits and practices are meant to teach us how to expand on our patient self-control which builds our ability at avoidance and deescalation. It means we become steadfast in doing everything whether under the best of conditions or under difficult ones. Martial arts are meant to develop the kind of character that is persistent, refuses to stop, remain diligent in all things, and to quietly and steadily persevering in the dojo and out.
Traditional/classical forms of martial arts were meant to inspire within each of us a greater capacity to accept or tolerate delays, trouble and suffering leaving anger, frustration and disappointment outside our need to deal with them. We leave also annoyance and negativity behind a blockade to our conscious mind remaining peaceful and more serene. We exhibit forbearance under any strain or short or long term difficulties with emphasis on those conflicts that could lead to physical altercations, etc.
(Note: notice in this instance that both forbearance and patience hold the same terms, characters, and ideograms - a sometimes confusing aspect to the language.)
The characters/ideograms mean "China; T''ang; hand; art." The first character means, "T'ang; China," the second character means, "hand," the third character means, "art; technique; skill; means; trick; resources; magic."
This is the ancient name used on Okinawa to designate its indigenous civil fighting art of "Ti" or Te." Ti, was the original ancient name for the Okinawan fighting art that later become influenced by their association with China. The strong influences caused a shift toward this name, Toudi-jutsu or just Toudi. Much later it was changed to Kara-te or Empty hand.