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Friday, June 19, 2015

Martial Systems Philosophical Japanese Terminologies
By Charles E. James

Published by Charles E. James at Blogsphere
Copyright 2012 Charles James

Blogsphere Edition, License Notes

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This effort was inspired by the lack of complete esoteric references to terms and phrases that would help the practitioner of martial arts to relate to the cultural aspects that drive the systems.

It is an effort to pass on these esoteric teachings of the Okinawan and Japanese systems of combat, i.e. Okinawan Karate Goshin Do, etc.

It is a compilation of such terms, phrases and characters/ideograms used to convey the more spiritual aspects of training and practice. Not to be confused with religious spirituality.

An effort to define terms/phrases used in the martial art community. The attempt will include, in most cases, the kanji/kana of the term.

Terms to be included are also those determined as "cultural" so that we may get the cultural influences in martial arts.

What is found here is the effort of the author and the author alone. Some come from common words found in many martial systems and some come directly from the mind of this author. Take it all with a grain of salt and give feedback were appropriate to clarify and validate, if possible.

Of course, if this doesn't work for you think of this effort as a teaching tool. Each one is a subject unto itself and provides a generous means of teaching all you can about martial arts, protection and defense.

Let this dictionary be a means to remove all ambiguities from instruction, training and teachings of martial arts. It will provide thought so when you teach, train and practice martial arts you get the full, complete and unabridged version.

Caveat: It should be noted that this author has very little training and experience in the Japanese language and writing. I used a variety of sources that are listed in the bibliography as well as on-line language translators to find the content herein. I ask for contributions about corrections from those who are proficient in both the language and writing. I also understand from my studies that the terms, ideograms and kanji carry a variety of meaning in accordance with the environment and persons using it that can vary enough that even the Japanese have to have explanations to determine true meaning.

Please understand that this content is not written in stone and that all errors are mine and mine alone. I have attempted to get this as accurate and correct as I can at my level.


Ageashi (ah-gay-ah-she) 揚げ足

The characters/ideograms mean "finding fault." The first character means, "hoist; fry in deep fat," and the last character means, "leg; foot; be sufficient."

This is a cultural word for the Japanese means of teaching the martial arts where "silence" dominates. Historically, self-restraint in communications was a product of cultural attainment, morality and wisdom which means a good deal of communications in all things Japanese was with silence.

The more one talked the more chance for error which would disrupt the cultural requirement for "harmony." Silent non-verbalization often told in stories of great Sensei in traditional dojo is not indicative of that are form but rather the entire cultural belief system of Japan.

Negative tone, words, etc. could set off negative reactions therefore to maintain harmony one expected the other to gain knowledge through observations and that would explain why it is often part and parcel to martial arts training that one observe.

This trait bleeds over to answering questions. It is not a custom to ask a senior questions and if pressed often to maintain harmony a senior will give a false answer or one they perceive as what the other wants which again maintains "harmony."

Agura [胡座]

The characters/ideograms mean "sitting cross-legged (i.e. Indian style)." The first character means, "barbarian; foreign," the second character means, "squat; seat; cushion; gathering; sit."

Agura or sitting Indian style is used to sit in a more Zen like fashion for meditation. Like martial arts zazen it is internal contemplation. Sitting seiza is most difficult for westerners. Even Japanese who were not taught and brought up from very young would have a difficult time sitting seiza. In my dojo of long ago if we had to sit for longer than five minutes I would normally allow the adjustment to agura form of sitting.

This is a sitting position often assumed for a more relaxed state. It is also used by practitioners who are not conditioned to sit seiza or kiza. The seiza and kiza forms are painful even for those who have sat in this form their whole lives, i.e. the Japanese. It is also appropriate for certain situations such as eating at a low table in a casual restaurant. It is allowed in more formal situations for those who find seiza and kiza difficult (the elderly or non-Japanese people. Women don't sit agura or anza style as it is considered uncouth, i.e. they sit formally with both legs off to one side, with one side of the hips on the floor.

Aida [] Ma [] Ma-ai [間合]

The character/ideogram means "space (between); gap; interval; distance; time (between); pause; break; span (temporal or spatial); stretch; period (while); relationship (between, among); space; room; time; pause."

The character/ideogram means "space; room; time; pause." The characters/ideograms mean "interval; distance; break; pause; distance between opponents (kendo)." The first character means, "interval; space," and the second character means, "fit; suit; join."

Space and interval, often referred to within the timing of an event, i.e. in martial arts applications. There are distances a martial artist must have knowledge of and be aware of in physical altercations.

How you manipulate and use both space and timing can make the difference between damage and death or avoidance and no damage. This is also something left to natural learning as one spars or competes in sparring matches. It is seldom taught outright outside of the sparring training module but can be taught using various techniques.

The complexities are numerous and the below will get one started on that journey. Then there is applying this new knowledge to get it working on the dojo floor and in the environment that fosters violence and violent behaviors.

With visual distortions one must learn to gauge distances in a different way to achieve good SD. In a state where distortion occurs you will feel and fear the perceived proximity of an adversary, an attacker. There is a technique that can be practiced so that when it happens you can judge and gauge the actual distance between you and an attacker. Marc MacYoung writes and teaches that ma-ai, or distance, is important in the SD arena. Distance provides you time, time to avoid, deter and/or deescalate creating a possible way to avoid conflict and its associated violence. How that technique is done requires one thing from the reader of this post, you read his book, “In the Name of Self-Defense.”

Another aspect of ma-ai in SD is associated with the art of “Uke.” In learning and teaching about Uke the mind-set and mind-state must be changed and this applies to SD as well. That change is more about receiving with a product of losing the impulse and desire to “Win” toward a more “Not Lose” mind-set/state. We use ma-ai to create opportunities to attack and this mind-state of “Attack” opens the door to winning but also opens the door so that one can leave the room called Self-defense and enter the other room that is fighting or the illegal fighting room.

In SD one must remain within the circle/square of SD. Always aiming for the win often takes you right out of the circle/square and straight into the repercussions that include economic ruin and prison let alone the ongoing adverse effects toward family over time, a long time.

All to often when teaching about ma-ai in MA circles it is about winning, and winning at all costs. Yes, there are rules in the competitive forms of MA that control such things but if a mistake is made that breaks those rules you have referees to stop things and get things back on track. In SD you have yourself who is so intent on winning they fail to see those rules that take you out of the SD circle/square and straight into the circle/square of illegal. There are no referee’s and with a mind-state/set like described often unchains the Monkey and that ain’t good.

There is so much more to all this in the MA world and this is but one effort to train the mind toward a new mind-state/set, toward one that takes the win out of the SD arena and puts “Not lose” in there. It is a paradigm shift that must be taken if you use MA or other skills for defense.

Aimai-sa [曖昧さ]

The characters/ideograms mean "ambiguity." The first character means, "dark; not clear," the second character means, "dark; foolish."

Uncertainty or inexactness meets the sensei and the sensei meets the practitioners. The inability to convey meaning accurately and clearly. If in the martial arts you have two distinct interpretations then the application will suffer. In business it costs money but in martial arts it causes misconceptions thus damage. Often the damage is physical (to the individual and the adversary), psychological (as to the aftermath), and legally (as to both criminal and civil repercussions).

It is important to address everything necessary to properly practice, train and apply martial arts but also to make sure there are no aimai-sa, ambiguity, in the teachings. It is more critical here because so much more is at stake.

Ainuke or Teiton [停頓]

The characters/ideograms mean "stalemate; standstill; stalemate; deadlock; set-back; abeyance." The first character means, "halt; stopping," the second character means, "suddenly; immediately; in a hurry."

In combat situation in which neither combatant wins or loses. Ainuke tends toward the transcending of combat. Since I was unable to find characters/ideograms for this term I used my discretion to choose another term that is similar, i.e. teiton or "standstill." I use standstill since in my perceptions one who transcends combat in this manner as described for ainuke both parties or combatants are of such proficiency they cannot find a chink in each others kamae so they don't fight.

To reach a standstill or deadlock means neither can direct harm to the other. This is reminiscent of those legends of samurai who would assume a kamae that seemed to be motionless to the extent they seemed frozen as statues but in reality it is the battle of the mind to find an opening to strike, etc. where when none is perceived by either combatants then a deadlock or stalemate is presented causing both to stand down from the duel.

Aite [相手] - Ada []

The characters/ideograms mean "opponent (sports, etc.); other party; addressee; companion; partner; company." The first character means, "inter-; mutual; together ;each other; minister of state; councillor; aspect; phase; ;physiognomy," the second character means, "hand."

Aite or opponent in martial arts is subconsciously suggesting to participants that the opponent is merely an companion or partner who opposes us in a sport even or contest.

Ada or ata or atan []

The character/ideogram means "foe; enemy; rival; resentment; enmity; grudge; harm; injury."

Ada is adversary which is a "foe; revenge; enemy; enmity; ill," which all relate to someone who is NOT a companion, partner or other party who is a sporting opponent.

I work on terminology for the simple reason that it conveys, often subconsciously, a meaning that promotes such things as the freeze or when someone who is doing battle stops and says, "That is not fair, that is outside the rules!"

If your martial system is sport oriented where you two person with mutual acceptance enter into a contest that is governed by rules with an outcome that is not life threatening - mostly, accidents do happen - then you both are opponents of one another.

If your martial system is budo oriented where you two or more persons are not mutually agreeing to a fight, combat or violence, i.e. or all three, where injury, damage and even life ending results are in the model then you are both adversaries who have one goal, to not lose; to not receive any more damage than is possible; to not end up in the morgue; to not end up in the hospital; to not end up with injuries of the disabling kind then your adversaries, not opponents.

Where I am concerned is when using terminology in budo training or supotsu training you must explain it or it will often, subconsciously, result in misinterpretations and perceptions.

It can be said the differences between an opponent and an adversary are rules, one has them and one does not. You can also say the difference in opponent and adversary is the difference between a contest and a fight. You can also say the difference in opponent and adversary is the difference between a school yard scuffle and a violent attack. Enemy vs. partner .... rival vs. other party .... harm and injury vs. damage and disability, etc.

Aite-kan [相手感]

The characters/ideograms together have no definition on my sources. The first character means, "together; each other; mutual; inter-; physiognomy; phase; aspect," the second character means, "hand," and the third character means, "sensation; feeling; emotion."

This combination for martial systems is actually similar in the western meaning given for the term "kakei or touch; feel opponent." This also connects to tactile or touch which a martial artist must use and rely on over their eyes and ears when in a clinch, a fight or a conflict.

Akashingo [赤信号]

The characters/ideograms mean "red light(s)." The meaning in general refers to a traffic light. The first character means, "red," the second character means, "faith; truth; fidelity; trust," the third character means, "nickname; number; item; title; pseudonym; name; call."

In this particular usage, the martial arts, red lights takes on a meaning similar to what most folks associate to a "spidey sense" or a sixth sense that says, "something is wrong." It is a combination of visual cues, auditory detections and tactile feelings that in congruence tell us that something is wrong.

Look at as discordant notes you cannot directly relate to but spell trouble. You detect something that should not be there but say "danger." You feel through visual, auditory and tactile means that something is happening or about to happen that could be dangerous.

Do martial arts training facilities address such sixth senses? If they do, are they simply assigning it to some supernatural ability that does not exist or are they teaching you to listen to your spidey sense or teaching you to react to your red lights, your akashingo. When the air shifts, you feel a prickle at the back of your neck or the hairs on your arms raise up and tickle you, are you scanning around your environment? Are you focusing your awareness on what is going on in that environment? Are you using your acquired knowledge about danger, violence and victimization models so you can take appropriate actions to avoid?

These are things that are not easy to address and sometimes are scoffed at as metaphysical supernatural bull but when you understand that the unconscious mind detects things present before the conscious mind can acknowledge them you will begin to understand their importance. The supernatural is actually a combination of knowledge, training, practice and application of focus and awareness with a good dose of avoidance and prevention that assists the survival instincts to send a red light or spidey sense that you will actually listen too vs. scoff at as simply nothing.

The difference could be damage vs. avoidance of same.

Akiramenai (ah-kee-rah-may-nigh) めない

The character/ideogram means "abandon, give up." Another cultural word that speaks to all the artistic pursuits indigenous to the Japanese culture to include its influences in the arena of the martial arts.

Stores abound from Okinawa, Japan and China of those who pursued arts and martial arts to seek revenge or "giri" in regards to real or perceived insults or slights. This is referred to as the "unbounded pride" syndrome and it plays a key role in this persistence. It describes why many who seek out martial arts at their origins come face to face with these unusual attitudes and behaviors. It is why often the levels or steps provided within dojo tend to be small, subtle and incremental.

This is why apprenticeships in these martial arts as well as any other disciplines takes from ten to thirty years. It also speaks toward the need for perfection in things like kata, etc. for the culture driven from ancient times, the feudal era, resulted in a culture that makes every single tiny event an art form where errors or blemishes are not easily acceptable.

In martial arts when traveling to those dojo that are considered the source of instruction westerners might well be warned of this syndrome and lower their western expectations and accept what is for it will be what it is and we cannot and should not try to change it.

Anmoku (explicit) [暗黙]

The characters/ideograms mean "tacit; implicit; explicit." The first character means, "darkness; disappear; shade; informal; grow dark; be blinded," the second character means, "silence; become silent; stop speaking; leave as is."

Mokumoku (tacit) [黙々]

The characters/ideograms mean "silent; tacit; mute." The first character means, "silence; become silent; stop speaking; leave as is." The second character is an adjective giving conjugation creating an adverb.

Explicit vs. Tacit Knowledge

Tacit knowledge is that knowledge that is understood or implied without being stated. [silent: implied by or inferred from actions or statements] In traditional Asian martial arts, classical in nature, this form of instruction is and was culturally driven. The kata of the culture, i.e. shikata, comes from the feudal era where everyone and everything had is form and function. You could tell by the way one walked what they did professionally.

The west mistook this silent aspect of the culture as meaning stand offish, inscrutable, remote, etc. where in Japan the culture assumes that everyone knows and can detect from silence, subtle body language, mood, tone, and intuition the implied meaning of the communications.

Explicit knowledge is that knowledge that is stated clearly and in detail, leaving no room for confusion or doubt. [precisely and clearly expressed or readily observable; leaving nothing to implication] This form of communications is the norm here in the west where we expect and are use to "straight talk." We try our best to convey the exact intent in our communications but often due to factors outside of awareness get into confusion and conflict due to the perceptions of individuals in regard to the culture and ethnic groups, the power relationships, the perceiving person, the sensory input modes, the perceptions of perceptions as to truth and accurate facts, and both the internal and external environments.

Sensei, if aware and knowledgable, can use these two venues of communications to enhance their ability to convey to practitioners both the tacit and explicit/implicit knowledge necessary to gain knowledge, experience and proficiency in martial systems. Since martial arts are also physical you add in the sensory methods of learning with the primary sense mode of the individual used you can show them, communicate tacitly and explicitly, and then tactually (tactile/touch/tactility/tactual) guide the mind and thus the body in learning.

Antei [安定]

This term refers to stability; equilibrium. The first character/ideogram means, "relax; cheap; low; quiet; rested; contented; peaceful," and the second character means, "determine; fix; establish; decide." For the life of me on this one, as with many not here, I cannot see the connection or symbolism that when joined mean balance and/or equilibrium. Who am I to question ... ?

Equilibrium, when we experience cold we strive to warm-up. When the heat becomes unbearable we strive to cool-down. In the most desirable situation we are neither hot or cold, but just right - equilibrium of temperature of the body, mind and thus spirit.

To achieve balance in the life we live we have to achieve an equilibrium of the mind, body and spirit, i.e. Heaven, Earth and Humanity. Humanity is that which makes us "human." Equilibrium of the mind, body and spirit is that perfect blending where one cannot be discerned from the other - a challenge.

The heart you can depend on; the mind is fluid, chaotic and always in flux. It takes the hara to bring the other two into balance, equilibrium, the whole.

The levels of nature are written in stone and we cannot subvert them to our individual needs, i.e. pass them to achieve the more fun aspects of life. We have to endure all of life's events, bad and good, to achieve balance, equilibrium, and enlightenment.

Anza [安座]

The characters/ideograms mean "sitting quietly; sitting cross-legged." The first character means, "relax; cheap; low; quiet; rested; contented; peaceful," the second character means, "squat; seat; cushion; gathering; sit."

See also Kiza, Seiza, Anza and Shikko

Anzenken [安全圏]

The characters/ideograms mean "safety zone; buffer (e.g. against defeat)." The first character means, "relax; cheap; low; quiet; rested; contented; peaceful," the second character means, "whole; entire; all; complete; fulfill," the third character means, "sphere; circle; radius; range."

I use this term to mean comfort zone. For a professional and for those who need self-defense gaining the experience necessary to make it work requires that you take yourself outside your comfort zone. You have to extend beyond the physical, mental and emotional comfort zone and experience as much as possible in area's that result in a stronger body, mind and spirit. Having an academic understanding of violence and the resulting pain and suffering that go with violence requires experience while remaining healthy.

Ao kusa no hito [青草の人]

The first character/ideogram means, "green; blue," the second character means, "grass; weeds; herbs; pasture; write; draft," and the third character means, "person; man."

Green grass man comes from the Shinto looking-glass God in that it connects the great tai chi to dualistic monism and then to man who is taught and perceived to be a "plant consuming entity." This means to many, vegetarian.

As martial artists we are naturally concerned with fitness and health. We take care of the external physical through the physical practice of martial arts but we don't necessarily give focus to the internal health and fitness of the body except by skimming over diet as we perceive, understand and consume. Apparently the ancient Japanese and Chinese long long ago recognized that man was meant to be a plant-oriented consumer. Our nature and our teeth as example are not formed or meant to chew meat or meat oriented foods.

The LGG actually makes reference to the type of teeth are best used to grind grain. Then there are references to our close connections to plant and plant life as it was created and evolved as the Yin to the Yang being "man or mankind." Everything to do with health and fitness are tied closely to plant oriented foods only and introduction of meat leads, and current research bears fruit on this aspect, disease.

As Sensei of traditional or classical martial systems, even sport oriented for optimal performance, it is suggested that ao-kusa-no-hito be discussed and at the very minimum references be provided for self-research. I can see from personal experience the effects of this type of nourishment. We are truly "green-grass man."

Ashi-kitae [足鍛え]

The characters/ideograms mean "foot conditioning." The first character means, "leg; foot; be sufficient," the second character means, "forge; discipline; train."

This exercise is done by one partner while they use their instep of the foot to help condition the legs and shins of their partner.

Ashi no jutsu [足の術]

The characters/ideograms mean "foot technique." The first character means, "foot; leg; be sufficient; counter for pairs of footwear," the third character means, "art; technique; skill; means; trick; resources; magic."

This term or phrase is one I use to refer to all the following leg techniques. I find this easier since not much is needed to define the various fundamental techniques as that is the venue of the dojo where a full fledged sensei can transfer that tactile knowledge directly where written words cannot.

Atarimae (Ah-tah-ree-my) [当たり前]

The characters/ideograms mean "natural; reasonable; obvious; usual; common; ordinary." The first character means, "hit; right; appropriate; himself," the last character means, "in front; before." [note: it may seem that the following does not relate to this "modern" translation, it must be remembered that the complexities of the language and ideograms/characters change in usage as they relate to groups and disciplines at any given moment]

The way things are done in the dojo, traditional/classical Japanese dojo, are best explained by the cultural influences that began in the feudal era which were also pushed to the Okinawan's due to Samurai influences around the 1600's when Japan assumed control of the island.

In the dojo there is a distinct hierarchy, i.e. the master/sensei to apprentice-deshi-kohai hierarchy. Westerners felt a bit out of place because in the early years the silent instruction prevailed and as western culture drove them they failed to realize that it was expected they would discern from other non-verbal factors the instruction.

We also didn't absorb the cultural meaning to the period of time it would take to actually learn and master the system, i.e. the period of years being on average ten to fifteen years. Atarimae was not recognized and western practitioners assumed the minimal physical aspects of the system were complete.

The culture of the martial arts of that time indicated that the disciple with the discipline were expected to learn what was needed without being told. This didn't hole well with the western cultures especially in those years after world war two since our attitude was that of the conquerer and they the conquered.

This once again promotes the need of a traditional martial artist to understand at least in this fundamental form the culture and belief systems that governed everything, every single detail no matter how trivial or minute that explains the "bunkai" if you will of the systems, styles and branches. It was the way of doing things then and coupled with our culture and belief and way of doing things is how the system, style and branch grow and prosper to the times, the people, and the cultures.

Atatamaru [暖める]

The character/ideograms mean "to warm; to heat; to warm oneself; to warm up; to get warm." The first character means, "warmth."

This term speaks to the warm-up's used in martial arts to warm up the body, to prepare for the rigors of karate and to help prevent injuries when you practice and train. The question arose in a reading recently, i.e. "Does a Lion warm up before it takes down prey or does it just spring into action and eat dinner?"

Now, I am not advocating a practitioner NOT warm up properly but I would suggest considering practice sessions, reality based, where warm-up's are skipped. Your walking down the street and attacked. You are not going to say, "Whoa, dude, give me a moment to warm up properly first." Ain't gonna happen is it. Yet, how many of us train, at least periodically, to spring into action without warming up to see how we react, act and actually apply the physical aspects of defense. (assuming we tried all the other stuff, i.e. avoidance, evasion, escape, etc.)

Atatamaru or warming up is something we should do to help our bodies adjust and endure the rigors of self-defense training because we don't want to cause unnecessary injuries, etc. but think about testing out what our bodies are capable of outside the norm, the box. Always warm up for the dojo but think about testing the ability to sprint instantly on the prey to see what your body and mind can do or overcome.

Try it in the dojo, on a warm day, outside and in the cold bundled up in warm clothing and see what happens; see what happens if your out in the cold with little warm clothing too.

So, why do warm-ups? If you are training for sport then it is imperative to help the body increase its ability to apply the sport techniques, etc. If you are training budo then it is also imperative to not only build up the bodies ability to endure the application of techniques but it also provides longevity for it provides a barrier against injuries as much as it can in a budo traditional training and practice model. If you are training for self-defense then it is also imperative to avoid injuries but it also means, as in budo as well, you should intersperse training sessions with a "few" that are geared toward instant cold to hot models to test out and to introduce the practitioner to what that feels like, the effects of it and any repercussions that could lead to long term injuries.

After all, injuries are a body weakness that an adversary can exploit so it behooves us to limit them or if unable to mentally and physically overcome and ignore them when the proverbial dung hits the oscillating bladed thingy.

Atemi [当て身]

The characters/ideograms mean "strike; blow." The first character means, "hit; right; appropriate; himself," the second character means, "somebody; person; one's station in life."

In martial arts atemi is often described as "a concentrated destructive power." When I hear someone refer to an ability under the heading of atemi I also think of the makiwara. In order to develop a concentrated destructive power in a punch, strike, or kick the best tool used in karate is the makiwara. There are a variety of  makiwara used today.

No where else does any discipline of fighting speak to the type of concentrated destructive power built or conditioned in the hands and feet with emphasis on the hands, i.e. ergo kara te or empty hand. I speak of modern times as I suspect that in boxing, a western martial art, before the days of wraps and gloves when bare fist-t-cuffs existed that there may have been some form of training used to toughen, condition and prepare the hands and fists for hitting harder targets, i.e. a persons head.

Atodjie [後知恵]

The characters/ideograms mean "hindsight." The first character means, "behind; back; later," the second character means, "know; wisdom," the third character means, "favor; blessing; grace; kindness."

Hindsight or Atodjie is to understand a situation or event only "after" it has happened or developed. It is where one can patiently and peacefully consider a situation or event after it has occurred but where it goes wrong is when used as a judgement against the actions of another or even self to determine how it or the event "should" have gone, etc.

It is an innate feature of humans to have the ability to review the past, to say what has happened, and why. Hindsight is a lot easier than foresight. Looking back into the past, you can say, "Why didn't this person do this or that to prevent the catastrophe, etc." You may find this used against you in a self-defense legal situation where not only will they review, decide what should have happened but also tell you why your in trouble when you thought you weren't. Make sense?

We often incorrectly think by hindsight that what occurred was more predictable than they were before it took place. It is a phenomenon that affects contexts and situations long after they occurred and it comes down to how one would and could be judged as to the actions they took, say in a violent attack.

You as a martial artist must learn that what you witness either personally or by electronic means is to be tempered with the fact that you are not seeing what they are seeing, not feeling what they are feeling, what pressures they feel. You are not dealing witht the impact of how the emotions affect their judgement and performance. It means, "until you lie it, you can not possibly know."

Hindsight is always a matter of over-thinking the past. It is also a part of our survival instincts. We tend to think we understand a situation far better than when it actually occurred. We don't stop to think that hindsight doesn't change the past but it just might help with the future. It does contribute to better training and practice if done correctly. You are simply trying to understand an event or situation after it happened or developed. Some call this the after action report.

First and foremost you have to leave ego and pride outside the door. There is no room for either one when using hindsight or AAR's to discover what could and should have occurred to better the situation or event. It is the recognition of the realities, possibilities, or requirements of the decisions made in the event after it occurs.

You cannot allow unreasonable or unrealistic hindsight into the picture either. It all has to be vetted through additional training and practice for a realistic scenario that may or might happen in the future. The important thing, another one anyway, is to understand that the past even or situation will not repeat itself exactly like it occurred and that means you have to use intuitive experience to discover how that event or situation could occur with different dynamics, etc.

Kodo o hokoku-go [行動を報告後] means after action report.

Atosaki [後先]

The characters/ideograms mean "context; front and rear; before and after; both ends; beginning and end; order; consequences." The first character means, "behind; back; later," the second character means, "before; ahead; previous; future; precedence."

Atosaki or context speaks to the ken-po goku-i and the intent Tatsuo-san had when he presented a copy to students, the intent was to gain a knowledge and understanding of the context that drives the system, the context being the culture and beliefs he had as represented in the gokui. Without that context, there is no way for a Westerner to truly understand the East and therefor the East's martial arts.

Aun no Kokyu (Ah-uhn no Koe-que)  [阿吽の呼吸] 

The characters/ideograms mean "the harmonizing, mentally and physically, of two parties engaged in an activity." The first character means, "Africa; flatter; fawn upon; corner; nook; recess," the second character means, "bark; growl," the forth character means, "call; call out to; invite," and the fifth/last character means, "suck; imbibe; inhale; sip."

In the martial arts as with many other aspects of the cultures involved the word "haragei" is used when describing the ability to get in unison with an adversary, i.e. to synchronize breathing and thinking to get into synch with others. It involves thinking and behaving as one with others which promotes the ability to intuit or anticipate what others are going to do, say and behave. This promoted the silent instruction method often causing great stress to western participants in martial arts in Japan and/or Okinawa.

I quote, "When new deshi enter Japanese dojo, most of the attitudes and behavior they are expected to exhibit are not verbalized or given to them in the form of written instructions. They are expected to pick up these things through their aun no kokyu." - Boye LaFayette DeMente in his book.